is created by David Witten, a mathematics and computer science student at Vanderbilt University. For more information, see the "About" page.

Cellular Respiration



Cells store energy with ATP, or Adenosine Triphosphate. The ATP consists of two parts, the adenosine, which is an adenine (a nucleotide, top right), connected to a ribose sugar. The triphosphate consists of three phosphate groups on the left. Those are high energy bonds, and when they're broken, they release energy.


ATP Hydrolysis

When combined with water, in a process known as hydrolysis, ATP releases energy.

MathJax TeX Test Page $$\text{ATP} + \text{H}_2\text{O} \rightarrow \text{ADP} + \text{P}$$ The above reaction is an exogenic reaction, meaning it releases energy. The free energy change, or $\Delta{}$G = -30.5kJ/mol, which means it releases a lot of energy.

Cellular Respiration

This is how the cell makes ATP. It is able to make up to 38 ATP per glucose molecule. This is made up of three part


This is an anaerobic process, meaning it doesn't require oxygen. This results in a net production of 2 ATP.


This happens when there is no oxygen, otherwise it goes on to the Krebs Cycle. 

Krebs Cycle

This is an aerobic process, meaning it requires oxygen, and this results in 2 ATP.

Electron Transport Chain

This is also an aerobic process, and it makes up most of the ATP created. This results in up to 34 ATP.


Note: There will be 3 new posts that go in depth into all 3 of the parts of cellular respiration.

David Witten


Recombinant DNA