In the beginning of the 1800s, Russia had become a massive military power. Britain was worried Russia would expand into the Mediterranean. At the same time, France was given authority over the Holy Land (Israel), and Russia started trying to get authority there, saying it would protect Christians.
On March 28th, 1854, Britain and France declared war on Russia. That September, the allies targeted a naval base in Sevastopol, a city on the Crimean Peninsula, part of Ukraine. They merged their troops together, and with 60,000 troops, they began to battle the Russians. There were some communicational issues within the French and British troops, but they still destroyed the Russians at that battle.
The allies avoided Sevastopol for the time being, and they attacked the port town of Balaclava, where there was a harbor that they could use as a supply base. They quickly took the town, and started unloading ammunition and weapons. After the allies bombed Sevastopol, Russia tried to attack Balaclava, but they were stopped by Scottish Highlanders, a very heroic battle, known as the Thin Red Line. There were only 550 Scots, and they fended off 2500 Russians.
Charge of the Light Brigade
The Russians were attempting to remove British guns and ammo, and Lord Raglan was attempting to stop it. So, he ordered his light cavalry to charge at them and stop it, but his orders were confused, and the "Charge of the Light Brigade" was launched at the wrong Russian position.
The 650 people involved in the brigade ran into certain death, and Britain lost a lot of ground from that miscommunication. There was still a standoff, and ten days later, Russia attacked, called the Battle of the Inkermann, and many Russians died.
During the war, four times as many troops died of illness than combat wounds. In late 1854, Florence Nightingale, a nurse known as "The Lady With the Lamp", began treating British troops. During that time, common soldiers were lower class people and many believed they did not deserved proper medical attention. She tried to change that, and she saved many lives. Also, she was shocked at the horrible sanitary conditions, and began advocating for better sanitary practices. For example, simple things, like hand washing, were promoted by Nightingale and became very popular today.
Consequences and End of the War
After another attack on Sevastopol, the city fell to the British and French. At the end, the British and French eventually captured their objective, but the war was not a success. Many lives were lost on both sides, and although it halted their expansion at the time, the Russian homeland was not attacked.